Consumer Generated Media as Driver of Green Marketing

An interview with Pete Blackshaw, CMO, Nielsen BuzzMetrics   

The creation and distribution of consumer-generated media (CGM) online is rapidly changing the marketing landscape.  Consumers are actively participating online, providing opinions, perspective and feedback on the products and brands they like and dislike through a variety of channels including message boards, social networking sites, corporate sites, online communities and blogs.   

Marketers are learning to tap into this consumer activism to support or drive campaigns across the consumer lifecycle.  While much content is consumer initiated, successful marketers are increasingly facilitating such content to serve multiple purposes. Marketers are looking to:  

  • Solicit consumer feedback and endorsement
  • Encourage engagement with the product or brand
  • Facilitate word-of-mouth recommendations or referrals (e.g. viral campaigns)

For marketers, however, CGM is not without risk.  By actively facilitating content creation, companies are in some ways ceding control over their brands as consumers have an increasing voice to shape the brands’ images and evolution.  Yet, today consumers are expressing their opinions online whether solicited or not.  Savvy marketers are learning to channel this energy to support their efforts as well as contain negative sentiments to protect corporate reputations and brands. 

Last week I had the opportunity to speak with Pete Blackshaw, CMO of Nielsen BuzzMetrics.  Blackshaw is truly a pioneer in CGM, having been credited with coining the term, as well as co-founding the Word-of-Mouth Marketing Association.  We spoke about CGM, and specifically, about how it is being used to engage consumers, shape brand perception and influence behavior in the green space.  Here is what Pete had to say: 

MG: You are credited by some with coining the term “consumer-generated media” and have a blog under the same name.  Tell me how you define this term.  How has it evolved over the past few years?   How is it changing the landscape for marketers?

PB: “Consumer-Generated Media” (CGM) encompasses the millions of consumer-generated comments, opinions and personal experiences posted in publicly available online sources on a wide range of issues, topics, products and brands.  CGM is also referred to as Online Consumer Word-of-Mouth or Online Consumer Buzz.  

I deliberately pushed the term “media” versus “content” to underscore that consumer opinion, whether on blogs, message boards, forums, or YouTube, essentially acts like media.  It intercepts other consumers, often during “consideration” periods, and this can have a significant impact on awareness, trial, and purchase of products.  It can also greatly impact defection and negative virality.

MG: Are there companies with eco-friendly products that are encouraging consumers to participate in a dialogue (e.g. on a corporate blog or community) or encourage the creation/submission of consumer-generated content?  Who has been most successful at doing this?  What were the primary reasons for success?

PB: Toyota recently launched a new community dedicated to conversation around all-things hybrid related.  The company also stays close to CGM flows in all the progressive car forums where hybrid cars or discussed. One manager, in fact, has the titled of “Manager, Consumer Generated Media.”  [Toyota enables consumers create profiles similar to those on MySpace and other social networking sites.  Currently, there are nearly 11,000 profiles posted.] GM uses its FastLane blog to occasionally highlight new initiatives or management attention around “green” related issues. 

As for more creative uses of CGM initiated by the companies, I just haven’t seen a great deal. In addition, more marketers today are aware of the blogs out there related to their space.  When I first launched HybridBuzz, I was shocked at how little the Honda folks were aware of blogs.  Now, that’s changed a great deal, especially as blog-related commentary continues to over-index on Google.  This creates a pressing need to “enter the conversation.”

MG: Today, the Internet is an essential channel by which to leverage word-of-mouth advertising.   To do so effectively, marketers must tap key influencers that have impact on brand awareness or purchase intent.  How do you identify and connect with online influencers?  How do you measure their impact?

PB: The key to identifying influencers is understanding the right way to profile consumers.  [All] brands already have “influencers” right under their nose…they just don’t know it.  As for connecting with influencers, I’m a big fan of reaching out to the hand-raisers in your database who you know are influential versus braving the less predictable waters of blogger outreach.  You clearly need to do some of that, but it’s more art than science.  Don’t believe any PR firm or word-of-mouth consultant who tells you otherwise.

MG: Environmental issues can generate significant positive as well as negative buzz for a company.  GE is one example: For years, GE was plagued by negative PR for its refusal to dredge PCBs from the Hudson River.  Now, GE’s “Ecoimagination” campaign is reshaping its image as a leader in the green space.  Are companies starting to monitor or even nurture their “environmental reputation” online?   Do some actively try to influence the direction of the dialogue?

PB: Yes, I can’t get into specifics, but CGM analysis is a fabulous way to find out if such initiatives are yielding results, awareness, or recognition.  The proof in the pudding is in the postings.  And yes, if you put all the blog entries related to GE’s “Ecoimagination” into a data-mining blender, you’ll find that they are starting to get good results.  But it’s not exactly a fire-hydrant of positive buzz.  This is a very long-term process.   One area that’s critical to monitor is the extent to which activist groups or more extreme “green-conscious” stakeholders view such corporate initiatives with skepticism or cynicism.  This is something we’ll look at periodically as well.

MG: Companies with eco-friendly products are increasingly launching branding and acquisition campaigns in the market.  How can these companies leverage buzz to measure campaign effectiveness?

PB: The good news is that “new news” is the currency of word-of-mouth, social media, and consumer-generated media.  And if you have “news” in the eco-friendly arena, that’s a big competitive advantage from a buzz-building perspective.  Buzz analysis can help pinpoint the key appeal drivers behind the eco-friendly initiatives.  How much buzz, and why?  Who’s talking, and why? What specific issues, and from what source?  Are key elements of the launch or marketing campaign indicted by the buzz?  CGM analysis can be a big help here.

MG: BuzzMetrics’ BrandPulse captures information about issues being discussed online including emerging trends.  Are you able to capture such trends in the green space?  For example, are attitudes changing regarding purchasing gas-guzzling vehicles or toward global warming?

PB: Yes, but you have to take a very broad brush analysis to reach that conclusion.  You can’t look at green-related conversation in a vacuum.  At the same time, I can say with confidence that conversation is noticeably up regarding fuel-efficiency, alternative vehicles, and, of course, global warming.  In fact, on the latter, I daresay Al Gore’s movie and book has significantly extended and deepened the nature of the conversation on global warming. It’s also precipitated some push back and skepticism, but the level of awareness and overall conversation is much higher today that it was last year or the year before last. This will be a very interesting area to monitor.   

As for gas-guzzling vehicles, it’s important to note that a decent percentage of the CGM discussion on this topic is price-sensitivity related.  Put another way, the pricing “pain” [from higher gas prices] is a conversational “gain” for green-related talk.  Also, as more auto manufacturers invest marketing dollars against their “green” or “hybrid” initiatives, expect to see higher levels of overall conversation [online].   

CGM, we consistently find, echoes marketing investment.  That’s a big reason why we’re monitoring Super Bowl ads.

Green Consumer Behavior – Part II: Evolving Social Norms toward the Environment

Joel Makower’s recent blog entitled “Is ‘Carbon Neutral’ Good Enough?” speaks to the growing trend to offset carbon emissions generated from personal or business activities.  Consumer sentiment is changing in the US, with a growing consensus on the need for action to mitigate global warming.  As Makower points out, companies such as DHL and UK-airline Silverjet have recently launched new services that include carbon offsets into the price, while TerraPass, Kärcher USA and Sam’ Club announced the first carbon-balanced retail product.  In fact, as Makower notes, carbon neutral “is rapidly becoming a minimum expectation of companies, concerts, conferences [and] celebrations.” 

Marketers should take note of this emerging trend and its underlying motivations: when it comes to global warming, social norms are evolving.  Quite simply, it is becoming less and less acceptable for companies not to take responsibility for their own (or their customers’) carbon emissions. 

The notion of carbon responsibility first became popular on the global stage in relation to leisure and non-essential business activities.  Examples include global sports events or conferences.  Recently, it has spread to corporations that anticipate the inevitability of government caps on carbon (if not governed by them already), as well as to consumers who are increasingly conscious of their own responsibilities and frustrated by the inaction of their own governments. 

Academic literature addresses this impact.  In his Focus Theory of Normative Conduct, Cialdini et al (1990) suggest that social norms influence acceptable and unacceptable behaviors.  He identifies two types of social norms: 

  • Descriptive norms: “what [other] people typically do”
  • Injunctive norms: “what [other] people typically approve or disapprove [of]”

Only by aligning descriptive norms…with injunctive norms,” Cialdini et al proposed, “can one optimize the power of normative appeals.” 

Cialdini presents empirical evidence for his theory and how it impacts environmentally responsible behavior.  In one experiment, he tested the propensity for people to litter given different social norms and cues.  Results demonstrated the power of the descriptive and injunctive norms for littering: people displayed a higher propensity to litter when the environment dictated litter as the norm (e.g. there was more litter on the ground or others were observed littering) and a lower propensity to litter when it was clear cleanliness was the “approved” norm (e.g. after observing someone else litter within a clean environment).  

One could argue that similar dynamics are in play when it comes to action (or inaction) on global warming.  In this case, at least until very recently within the US, the prevailing descriptive norm was to do nothing, because that is what everyone else was doing. 

Two things are occurring that seem to be changing this.  First, descriptive norms within the global community apprear to be evolving.  These norms have shifted more dramatically in Europe and Japan and provide tangible examples for the US to follow.  Some initial signs of change have appeared: 1) US multinational companies have joined the Chicago Climate Exchange and committed to voluntary carbon reductions, 2) state and local governments have enacted sweeping legislation to cap carbon emissions and 3) individual consumers are purchasing an increasing number of higher gas mileage vehicles. 

Second, injunctive norms are also changing as global social norms shift toward responsibility for carbon emissions.  Much like the smoking ban enacted in 2003 in New York City, which is credited for inspiring similar bans globally, global social norms are shifting in regard to global warming.  As Al Gore stated in his movie, we have a “moral responsibility” to take action – and it seems that we are slowing beginning to do that. 

So, marketers should take note.  Campaigns should take advantage of – as well as reinforce – evolving social norms and do so in a way that incorporates both descriptive and injunctive norms into their messaging.


Cialdini, Robert, R Reno, and C Kallgren, 1990. “A Focus Theory of Normative Conduct: a theoretical refinement and re-evaluation of the role of norms in human behavior.”  Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 201-234 

Cialdini, Robert, 2003. “Crafting normative messages to protect the environment”, in Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12-4, 105

Green Marketing through Behavioral Targeting

An Interview with Dave Morgan, Founder and Chairman of Tacoda  

With diverse demographics and evolving attitudes toward eco-friendly products, green consumers are an elusive segment to characterize, let alone target. Specifically, demographics are shifting for green consumers: a once niche market now attracts a broader consumer set that identifies with issues such as global warming and votes with its wallets.  Moreover, purchase patterns are inconsistent within and across product categories.  For example, one might buy a hybrid car but not purchase renewable energy for the home. 

Given these complexities, marketers are turning to behavioral targeting in order to effectively identify and message to this emerging segment.  Quite simply, behavioral targeting enables advertisers to serve relevant ads to consumers based on past-demonstrated behavior online (eg, frequent or recent visits to relevant content).  Additionally, behavioral targeting can be used to influence consumers across the purchase funnel: at the top to build brand awareness and affinity and near the bottom to drive purchase intent and sales. Jupiter Research identifies three different types of publishers and service providers that offer behavioral targeting: 

  • Pure play networks (eg, Tacoda, Revenue Science): Focus on driving brand awareness through purchase intent, provides high-quality partner sites and advanced targeting technology
  • Performance networks (eg,, Claria): Focus on driving purchase with cost-per acquisition (CPA) pricing, provides broad reach yet has less sophisticated technology relative to the pure plays
  • Individual Web properties including portals (eg, Yahoo, MSN) and content sites (eg,, iVillage): Ability to target limited by breadth and depth of relevant content on property. 

I recently had the opportunity to speak with Dave Morgan, Founder, Former CEO and now Chairman of Tacoda, a market leader in behavioral targeting.  We spoke about the emerging green consumer, Tacoda’s advantages in the market and how its behavioral targeting approach is an effective way to identify and influence green consumers.  Here is what he had to say: 

MG: Behavioral targeting is an effective tool for both branding and acquisition.  Targeting based on online behavior can be facilitated by providers such as Tacoda, as well as via portals, individual web sites or even performance networks such as or Claria.   What is Tacoda’s approach for behavioral targeting and how does it stand out from its competitors?   

DM: We make sure that messages get to the appropriate people with significant scale and without the typical waste.  To do so, we focus exclusively on the needs of brand advertisers and those whose objectives are what we call ‘branded response’.  

MG: Does that include building brand awareness and affinity and moving customers through purchase or does it stop short at purchase intent?  

DM: Typically through purchase intent.  We will certainly be used to drive purchase but only if its part of a full funnel approach.  We tend to focus a little higher up in the funnel than others.   

We operate an ad network that is exclusively focused on behavioral targeting.  While there are advantages sometimes of mixing and matching different techniques, we really focus on being the best in breed in a number of different behavioral areas.  For example, we have a full product suite where we do everything from targeting audiences according to pre-set, standardized segments or customized segments that we develop with the advertisers and agencies. 

We do cluster targeting in which we optimize segments as the campaign develops, and we also do retargeting.We also deliver across a pretty substantially scaled network now.  We have 4,500 web sites in the network.  Sites like The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, MSMBC, Orbitz, premium branded sites.  And we now see about 140-150MM unique visitors in the US each month so we are at about 80% penetration [of the online population].

MG: It sounds like you are able to evolve your segments based upon a customized targeting criteria or feedback in the market.  

DM: Exactly. Being able to evolve them is critical because what we have learned is that many of behavioral indicators that are most powerful are non-intuitive and counter-intuitive.

MG: How can companies as diverse as Toyota or the Body Shop use behavioral targeting to market to eco-friendly consumers?    

DM: We have a lot of data on US web browser behaviors that we leverage.  In fact, we collect more data each day than Wal-Mart.  Moreover, we recently mapped this data against comScore data so we can associate certain people that browse certain kinds of content with their e-commerce purchases and visitation to advertiser web sites.  

For us, there is a pretty critical implication here. We have always been able to target advertising to people that have been looking at content about, say, hybrid cars.  And, by analyzing the data, we can tell our network of publishers if they attract a similar audience, regardless of whether [that publisher]  is a political blog, news site or automotive site.   

The data also helps us find these people for advertisers because, as you can imagine, there is very little green auto content out there [to place ads on].  But if you want to deliver meaningful campaigns – not just experimental campaigns – you need scale.  There is simply not enough scale today for advertisers to target online users only looking at the hybrid sections of the car sites.  For the people that review this green content, we are able to identify what their other characteristics are and then message to them on other sites and blogs in our network.  

One interesting insight is that we found that this [eco-friendly] segment goes to auto manufacturing sites more than any other group.  The one behavior we find that indicates an interest in going to auto manufacturer sites is an interest in hybrid cars – even when they do not have hybrid cars at that site.  In fact, it’s the number one indexing behavior for several auto manufacturer sites.  I find this incredible. 

What this is telling us is that in many ways [prospective hybrid buyers] are manufacturer agnostic but looking for companies with [hybrid] cars.  This shows us that high up the funnel, hybrid is really important.  It is different on car configurator sites where consumers are [lower in the purchase funnel, closer to making a purchase decision] looking for price and features.  

Here is another thing.  If you flip it, and say “let’s not look at what are the kinds of people that look at an auto manufacturer site” but you say, “Of the people that consume hybrid car content the most online, what other car content do they go to, what kinds of cars are they most interested in?”  What do you think that may be? 

MG: Safety? 

DM: Actually, no, just the opposite.   

MG: Performance? 

DM: Yeah, they are looking at sports cars, high-end sports cars.  And the people that we see that look at hybrid cars the most appear to be multi-vehicle households with high incomes.  So they are buying the hybrid to feel good about themselves. They are buying it for balance.  

And these are not just average sports cars.  They are really high-end sports cars that they tend to look at. [Hybrid customers] are not granolas or tree huggers which is a really important marketing insight. And because they index so high against manufacturer brands, [hybrid cars] are clearly becoming the differentiator that these [automotive] brands are known for.  While the manufacturers may only be selling one tenth of one percent of their cars as hybrid, the hybrid association is affecting a lot more customers. 

When I talk to people in the [auto] business, they confirm that [a hybrid] tends to be a second or third car purchase.  It is not purchased as a first car, as they are expensive.  It tends, rather, to be paired along with a gas-guzzler, either a large SUV or a high performance sports car or both.  

MG: Jupiter Research notes that behavioral targeting is increasingly favored by companies marketing products with long purchase cycles – such as automobiles, financial services and travel.  How does this play to Tacoda’s strengths in promoting to green consumers?  

DM: The reason that behavioral targeting works very well with auto, financial services, and travel, and also things like home purchases, is that long purchase cycle products are high consideration products.  So, it is top of mind all the time.  As a result, you tend to be very, very aware of ads for those kinds of products and services no matter where you are surfing.   

Also, it is very hard to find those people early in their [purchase] cycle.  Search, as everyone knows, is extraordinarily effective at handing over the lead at the last moment.  But, most likely they have made their brand decision by then.  At that point, it is just about price and location.  If an auto manufacturer or travel destination wants to make an impact, they cannot wait for search.  

MG: What are those indicators that identify consumers with an affinity for green products?  

DM: We analyze the data with no preconceived notions. We start first with who is looking at hybrid car content or green content on news sites or blog sites.  Then we say, ‘what else do we know about them?’  And then, we back into their socio-demographic profiles. After that, we say, ‘Who else looks like them?’ to find look-alikes in the market.   

Today, we know several million browsers in the US indicate a preference for green-oriented products or services or content.  We have found that they had higher incomes that you might have thought and that they are older than you might have thought.  We have also found that they purchase a lot of not-green things, too. 

It is a parlor game [at Tacoda] to talk about motivation [for green purchases] and why. We love doing it. Perhaps consumers have kids in school and [the kids] are asking these questions and that is why they are [purchasing hybrids], or they’re still flower children of the sixties or seventies and are feeling guilty.   

Whatever the underlying motivation is, here is a huge insight for brand marketers: some of the highest spending population groups now have an indicated preference for green and it is untapped.  Regardless of whether only a small percentage of what they buy is green, they seem to care. And so it makes me believe that if brands can authentically wrap themselves in more green-focused products and services and business strategies, there are willing consumers that will reward them.    

MG: And potentially conversely shift spend away from companies who don’t? 

DM: Yes. If it is not authentic, it could backfire on companies that do not use it correctly.   

It is also important to note that [being green] may do nothing more than to generate consumer attention.  The hybrid issue can energize people more than any other issue in automotive than we’ve seen, even though it represents only a tiny fraction of cars that are sold.   

This says that while people are going to manufacturer sites, most of them are not finding appropriate hybrid cars.  But they are finding a lot of car content and probably viewing the other content through a bit of a green lens.  What it also says is that you do not need a whole line of green, probably, to be able to benefit from a legitimate association with green products and services.  

MG: How do you measure whether you have been successful at moving the consumer along the purchase funnel – from brand affinity to purchase intent? 

DM: In most cases we use classic pre- and post-campaign brand awareness surveys or purchase intent surveys from vendors like Insight Express or Dynamic Logic.  However, as I mentioned, we are now starting to match our data against comScore data so we can see how the browsing patterns of our target segments change over time.  

The beauty of what we are doing is that we are looking at not what they say that they do but what they actually do. And we know that there is a big difference there simply because a lot of the things we are finding that are most insightful are non-intuitive or counter intuitive.   

MG: You have identified some of the typical attributes of a green consumer: higher income, older.  How else would you profile this segment? 

DM: To be very clear, there is not just one segment.  One that I have described to you is somewhat non-intuitive.  We are also certainly seeing high indices in a younger audience, as well. There isn’t an average green consumer. In fact, I would argue that green is what makes populations with different incomes, age and other characteristics the same.  For example, there is a big cluster in younger and lower-income populations, but they are not buying hybrid cars because they cannot afford them.  

Today, I think companies still see green as an attribute.  They don’t see it as relationship enhancer yet.  They say, ‘got to have green, check the box, everyone wants a little green’, rather than realizing that there is a group of people for which green is huge and focus on that.  

MG: How do you then market non-green product and services to green consumers? 

DM: If you know this is an important issue, you can change creative messaging or the kinds of products that push out.  What it says is that green is an issue that people will pay a premium for; that alone should get every marketer’s attention.   

Green Consumer Behavior– Part I: Information Paradox

Understanding consumer behavior is critical for any marketer, and is especially important in regard to environmental products and services.  More than one hundred years of consumption theory – across a wide range of academic disciplines including economics, psychology and sociology – makes it clear that there are many different motivations and influences that drive consumer behavior.  Professor Tim Jackson at the Centre for Environmental Strategy at the University of Surrey (Guildford, UK) provides a comprehensive summary of this history in his Motivating Sustainable Consumption, a report to the Sustainable Development Research Network, a Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs (UK)-funded initiative designed to link research and policymaking in the area of sustainable development. 

Clearly every marketer knows that material goods and services serve multiple purposes to consumers.  They have functional uses in terms of meeting basic needs such as subsistence and protection.  Additionally, they serve symbolic purposes that, according to Jackson, help consumers “facilitate a range of complex, deeply engrained ‘social conversations’ about status, social cohesion, group norms and the pursuit of personal and cultural meaning.”  Moreover, motivations for purchase may vary from being deliberate in intent to more of an expression of “habit, routines, social norms and expectations, and dominant cultural values” 

Conceptual models enable green marketers to obtain a deeper understand of what motivates consumer behavior and drives change.  Quite simply, these models:

  • Provide “heuristic frameworks” that help conceptualize “social and psychological influences on both mainstream and pro-environmental consumer behaviour.”
  • Enable ways to empirically determine the correlation between “different kinds of relationships in different circumstances.” 

Not surprisingly, there is much debate as to which frameworks best explain consumer behavior in the green space.   At a very simplistic level, theorists tend to wrestle with seemingly conflicting social-psychological motivations that include, but are limited to: 

  • Rational choice vs. less-than-rational choice (eg, emotional response, mental short-cuts)
  • Individual self-determination vs. social conformation (eg, context, constraints, expectations)
  • Internal antecedents (eg, values, attitudes, intentions) vs. external antecedents (eg, incentives, social norms, institutional constraints)

As such, no single framework can explain consumer behavior all of the time, nor should we expect that it could.  Nonetheless, frameworks provide a robust starting point for understanding consumer behavior and how to influence it through our marketing efforts.  

One counter-intuitive observation that Jackson made is that of the Information Paradox: People want to “feel in control of their lives and resist feelings of helplessness.”   More information, however, may not empower them.  In fact, it may have “precisely the opposite effect.”   

This paradox is noted in the academic literature. From an evolutionary perspective, Kaplan and Kaplan (“The Visual Environment”, Journal of Social Issues, 1989)  observes that humans want “to participate, to play a role, in what is going on around them” but do not want to feel “incompetent and helpless” when they do.  Kaplan (“Human Nature and Environmentally Responsible Behavior,” Journal of Social Issues, 2000) revisited this issue declaring that helplessness is a “pivotal issue” in understanding consumer motivation and behavior.  Kaplan writes, “A situation in which people cannot act effectively, in which they cannot solve the problems they face or cannot implement the solutions they come up with, is likely to be extremely distasteful. In other words, people would be expected to avoid contexts that they consider conducive to helplessness. And since this is a cognitive animal, one would expect an avoidance of even thinking about realms that evoke feelings of helplessness. Thus, in this perspective, helplessness would be one of the most important motivational issues to consider in the context of behavior change.” 

A study by UK-based Research International (RI) in 1993 (as cited in “Too Green for their Own Good” by Gary Levin, Advertising Age, April 12, 1993 and Kaplan, 2000) provides empirical evidence that supports this observation.  As part of this effort, RI conducted focus groups with more than 900 participants in 29 countries.  Simon Chadwick, RI’s CEO, summed up the survey results as follows: “The more you know, the less you know how to deal with it.”  In fact, participants with the highest awareness of environmental issues (US, Canada, Germany, Netherlands and Norway) also had the highest levels of anxiety based on a sense of helplessness.   As Chadwick continues, consumers “are looking for clarity of information that can lead people to make decisions.”  Yet “the more information that is pumped out…the more contradictory it seems, and the less people are able to translate that information into knowledge.” 

For green marketer, the stakes are high.  Taking the Information Paradox into account when planning all environmental campaigns – from building public awareness to driving product sales – will result in effective consumer behavior change, rather than paralysis.  Suggestions for marketers: 

  • Simplify message and prioritize action steps.  For example, when tackling global warming in public awareness campaigns, focus on action steps that offer the most impact rather than present a laundry list of things that could be done
  • Do not overwhelm consumer with negative statistics. Use to create sense of urgency, but balance with positive impact from taking action.
  • Facilitate “participatory problem solving” to motivate desired behaviors by enlisting people to be a part of the solution (Kaplan, 2000).  For example, tap brand enthusiasts that can help inform the creation of education-related marketing materials or even product design.
  • Track and report on results – on an individual or collective basis – to create a sense of accomplishment.  Use to attract new participants.  For example, tracking net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from hybrid car or renewable energy use may motivate others to participate rather than remain on the sidelines.
  • Celebrate success.